Anal cancer, also known as cancer in the year, is the one that affects the final portion of the rectum called the anal region. This type of cancer is rare and can cause symptoms such as bleeding and anal pain, especially during evacuation, as people confuse these symptoms with the presence of a hemorrhoid.
Generally, cancer of the year is more frequent in individuals over 50 years of age who have anal sex and who are infected with the virus of HPV and HIV, and it is recommended to see a doctor in case of symptoms in the anal area.
The treatment of anal cancer depends on the stage at which it is diagnosed, which can be a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or in more severe cases, surgery to remove part of the anal canal.
Anal cancer does not always cause signs and symptoms, and it can appear in the most advanced stages of cancer. However, the main symptom that arises is the presence of blood red color alive in the heces and in the year, in addition to this, other symptoms can also arise that include:
- Pain in the year;
- Inflammation of the anal region;
- Changes in intestinal transit;
- The ardor begins in the year;
- faecal incontinence;
- Presence of a nodule or mass in the year;
- Increase in the size of the lymph nodes.
It is important that only the symptoms indicative of cancer appear in the year, you should consult a proctologist to carry out the diagnosis and start the appropriate treatment as quickly as possible. Know other possible causes of lump or lump in the year.
Cancer in the year is more frequent in people who are carriers of the HPV virus, have a history of cancer, have use of drugs that reduce the activity of the immune system, carriers of the HIV virus, smokers, have multiple sexual partners and have sex anal. Therefore, if the person is identified within this risk group and present these symptoms, it is important that the medical evaluation is carried out.
Cancer stages of the year
Anal cancer, depending on its development, can be divided into 4 stages:
- Stage 0: It is less than 2 cm and is located only at the level of the anal mucosa;
- Stage 1: It is approximately 2 cm around it, located on the canal alone;
- Stage 2A: cancer is more than 2 cm, but less than 5 cm but it is located only in the canal;
- Stage 2B: cancer is more than 5 cm and is still located in the canal;
- Stage 3A: Cancer has an area of 2 cm and less than 5 cm, but it has spread to the lymph nodes around the rectum, but not to other regions;
- Stage 3B: cancer is of any size and is growing in nearby organs such as the vagina, urethra or prostate gland, although it has not invaded the lymph nodes or other more distant sites;
- Stage 3C: the cancer is more than 5 cms long and has invaded the surrounding lymph nodes in the recto but in distant sites. It is also considered at this stage if the cancer is of any size but it is growing in some organs such as: the vagina, urethra, prostate gland and, in addition, it has invaded the lymph nodes near the rectum but in distant sites;
- Stage 4: Cancer can be of any size and metastasis in distant organs such as the liver or kidneys.
The cure of this type of cancer will depend on the stage in which the illness was diagnosed, since when it is located in the initial stages the survival rate in the next 5 years after the illness was diagnosed at 82%, and it will decrease as it gets to a more advanced stage.
How is the diagnosis performed?
The yearly cancer diagnosis is carried out through the evaluation of the symptoms described by the person and through exams that can be recommended by the doctor, such as rectal tact, a proctoscopy or an anoscopy, which can be painful, due to The injury caused by cancer, which can be performed under anesthesia, is but important because the objective is to evaluate the anal region to identify any alteration that may be indicative of the illness.
In the event that during the examination there is an alteration that suggests the presence of cancer, a biopsy may be requested to verify whether the alteration is benign or malignant. Furthermore, in case the biopsy gives a positive result for cancer of the year, the doctor could indicate the performance of a magnetic resonance to verify the extension of the cancer. Know other causes of anal pain.
How is the treatment performed?
The treatment for anal cancer must be carried out by a proctologist or oncologist and, generally speaking, there is a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for 5 to 6 weeks, when hospitalization is not necessary.
The doctor can also recommend surgery to remove small anal tumors, especially in the first stages of anal cancer, or to remove the anal canal, the rectum and a portion of the colon, in the most severe cases.
In more severe cases, when it is necessary to remove a large part of the intestine, the patient could need a colostomy, which is a pouch that is located on the abdomen and that receives the heces, which must be eliminated throughout the year. The colostomy bag must be changed whenever it is full.
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