Doping in sport corresponds to the use of prohibited substances that stimulate muscle growth or improve the athlete’s performance and physical endurance, artificially and passively, achieving better results in sport.
Due to the fact that the substances temporarily increase and the athlete’s performance is shortened, it is considered a dishonest practice, therefore, athletes who test positive for doping are eliminated from the competition.
Doping is more frequently detected during sports competitions, such as the Olympics and the World Cup. For this reason, it is common for high-performance athletes to undergo an anti-doping test to determine the presence of prohibited substances in the body.
Mostly used substances
The most used substances that are considered doping are those that increase strength and muscular resistance, decrease pain and fatigue sensation, are:
- Erythropoietin (EPO): helps to increase the cells that supply oxygen in the blood, improving performance;
- Furosemide: potent diuretic that helps to reduce weight quickly, used mainly by athletes in weight categories. It also helps to dilute and hide other substances prohibited in the water;
- Energy drinks: increasing attention and disposition, decreasing the feeling of tiredness;
- anabolic steroids: They are hormones used to increase strength and muscle mass, such as testosterone, androstenediol, androstenedione, oxandrolone, among others.
In addition to this, athletes and their team receive a list of recommendations and medications that they cannot use during training because they contain substances considered illegal in sport. In this way, it is necessary to be attentive even during the treatment of common illnesses such as flu, high cholesterol and skin problems, since even without the intention of doping, the athlete can be eliminated from the competition.
When and how the anti-doping test is carried out
The anti-doping test is always carried out during competitions to verify if there is any fraud and that it may have interfered with the final result, which can be done before, during the competition period. Generally speaking, the winners must carry out the doping test to demonstrate that they have not used substances or methods considered dopaje. In addition to this, the exams can also be requested during the period of competition at random, es decir, choosing the athletes by lot and without prior notice.
The examination can be carried out by collecting and analyzing a sample of blood or urine, which are evaluated with the aim of identifying the presence or absence of prohibited substances. Regardless of the amount of substance, if any prohibited substance that circulates in the body, the products of its metabolism, is considered doping and penalizes the athlete.
It is also considered doping, according to the Brazilian Doping Control Authority (ABCD), the escape or the refusal to recognize the sample, the possession of a substance the prohibited method and the fraud the attempt to fraud in any stage of the doping process .
Why doping helps athletes
Using chemical substances that are not natural in the body helps to improve the general performance of the athlete, having advantages such as:
- Increase concentration and improve physical capacity;
- Relieve pain caused by exercise and reduce muscle fatigue;
- Increase muscle mass and strength;
- Relax the body and improve concentration;
- Help you lose weight quickly;
In this way, taking these substances so that the athlete achieves faster and better results than those that would only be achieved with training and diet. For this reason, they are prohibited in sport.
However, despite the prohibition, many athletes use these substances habitually, from 3 to 6 months before the official competition during their training to increase their performance, suspending after their use to allow time for the body to eliminate the substances and the prueba anti-doping, throw negative result. However, this practice can be dangerous, as the anti-doping test can be carried out without prior notice.
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