There fasciola liverwort It is a parasite that can be found in the bile ducts of mammals, such as sheep, cattle and pigs, for example, and that can cause fasciolasis, a rare disease that can occur when water or vegetables contaminated by the infective form of this parasite are consumed. .
Infection with this parasite, also known as due to the liver, can cause symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain, inflammation of the liver and obstruction of the bile ducts in more severe cases, which vary according to the phase and intensity of the infection. It is important that the diagnosis and treatment are carried out quickly, since as the parasite is not adapted to the human body, the symptoms can be quite serious.
For this reason, in view of the suspicion of an infection by fasciola liverwort, It is recommended to consult a general practitioner to carry out the necessary examinations and initiate the most appropriate treatment, which normally includes the use of Albendazole, Bithionol and/or Dehydroemetine, always under medical advice.
The symptoms that can arise there acute fascioliasis sound:
- Abdominal pain;
- Inflammation in the liver.
These symptoms can appear during the 1st and 2nd week after the infection. However, once the parasites lodge in the bile ducts fascioliasis get chroniccausing the appearance of other symptoms, such as:
- weight loss;
- Recurrent fever;
- Liver enlargement;
- Accumulation of fluid at the abdominal level (ascitis);
- Tides y;
- lack of air.
In certain cases, inflammation of the liver can lead to the emergence of other complications, such as obstruction of the bile ducts or liver cirrhosis. Know what is hepatic cirrhosis.
hepatic fasciola life cycle
There hepatic fluke It has a life cycle that includes the infection of intermediate and definitive hosts, occurring according to the following stages:
- Los huevos de los gusanos are released by the hosts, that they can be personas or animals, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs;
- The liberated huevos eclosionan to get in contact with the waterreleasing the miracidio;
- The miracidio present in the water seeks an intermediate hostthe one that can be the sweet water snail of the genus Lymnaea sp.;
- In the interior of the caracol, the miracidium unfolds in the sporocystnets and in nets that contain surrounds;
- The cercariae are released in the water and are fixed on the surface of the hojas y planta from las riberas it reaches the surface of the water, passes the objective, enquista and adheres to the vegetation or moves to the bottom of the water, being called metacercaria;
- Los animals or people ingesting water or contaminated plants from the riberaare infected by the metacercariae, which are removed in the intestine, perforate the intestinal wall and reach the hepatic pathways, characterizing the water phase of the illness.
After 2 months, the parasite moves to the bile ducts, developing until the acute phase, multiplying and placing eggs, which are released in the heces, allowing a new cycle to begin.
how is it transmitted
There hepatic fluke It is transmitted to the human being from the consumption of water or raw vegetables that contain metacercariae of this parasite. Another possible way, although more rare, is through the consumption of raw liver meat from infected animals and the contact with the aquatic snail or its secretions.
How to confirm the diagnosis
The diagnosis of fascioliasis is carried out by the doctor to assess the clinical evaluation of the signs and symptoms and the observation of the habits of the affected person, such as raising animals or eating raw vegetables.
After the initial evaluation, the doctor can indicate the performance of some exams that help to confirm the infection, such as a parasitological exam of heces, immunological tests of blood and imaging exams, such as ultrasound or tomography of the abdomen, with the objective of confirming the presence of the parasite inside the biliary tree and the identification of inflammation and fibrosis. Know more about the exams that evaluate the liver.
How is the treatment performed?
The treatment of fascioliasis is indicated by the doctor and includes the use of antiparasitic drugs such as bithionol for 10 days, on alternate days; dehydroemetine for 10 days or albendazole, although serious side effects associated with the use of this antiparasitic have been described.
If there are complications in the liver, such as cirrhosis or obstruction of the bile ducts, it will be necessary to follow up by a hepatologist, who will indicate ways to prolong the health of the liver and, if necessary, indicate some type of surgery to correct the obstructions.
How to prevent illness
To prevent infection by hepatic fluke, it is recommended to decontaminate raw vegetables before eating them, and always use clean and appropriate water for consumption. Asimism, it is recommended to avoid the consumption of raw meats.
It is also important that people who care for livestock and other animals are attentive to food and treatment in case they are infected, as a way to avoid the persistence of maggots in the environment.
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