Colloid cyst corresponds to a layer of connective tissue that contains inside a gelatinous material called colloid. This type of cyst can be round or oval and vary in size, however, it does not tend to grow much or spread to other areas of the body.
Symptoms and treatment for this type of cyst will depend on where it is located, as it can be present at the brain and thyroid level.
The diagnosis of this type of cyst is carried out through imaging tests such as a magnetic resonance or a computerized tomography in the case of the brain and an ultrasound, a physical examination and/or the performance of a biopsy in the case of the thyroid .
Types of Colloid Cyst
Colloid cyst can be identified in two areas of the body:
- In the brain: specifically in the cerebral ventricles, which are regions responsible for the production and storage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this way, the presence of the cyst can obstruct the CSF step and cause fluid accumulation in that region, causing hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and, in more rare cases, sudden death. Although it is usually benign and asymptomatic, when it is diagnosed it is important that the doctor evaluates the size and the position of the cyst in order to determine the possibility of obstruction of the CSF step and, in this way, a treatment can be defined.
- On the thyroid: The most common type of benign thyroid nodule is colloid nodule. In case a nodule produces thyroid hormones without considering the need of the body, it is called an autonomous nodule and can occasionally cause hyperthyroidism. If the nodule is filled with fluid or blood, it will receive the name of thyroid cyst. The difference from the cyst, the nodule corresponds to a rounded and bland lesion that, normally, grows and can present a malignant aspect, being this one of the main concerns regarding the emergence of this lesion on the thyroid. Find out more about the thyroid nodule and how the treatment is performed.
The causes that originate both thyroid and cerebral colloid cysts, however, are not very clear, it is believed that it could form during the development of the fetal nervous system in the uterus, in the case of colloid in the brain.
The main signs and symptoms vary according to the region where the colloid cyst is present.
1. Cerebral colloid cyst
In most cases, colloid cyst located in the brain is asymptomatic, however, some people report some very specific symptoms, such as:
- Light lack of memory;
- Slight changes in mood and behavior.
Due to the lack of specificity of the symptoms, the colloid cyst in the brain is usually not identified quickly, and the diagnosis is carried out by means of imaging tests, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance, which are requested due to other situations .
2. Thyroid colloid cyst
There are no symptoms associated with it and it is only discovered to palpar the region of the skin. The ultrasound exam is indicated to identify if its edges are rounded with the purpose of establishing the possibility of being cancer no. The biopsy by aspiration helps to identify which is the content, if there is liquid, bleed the hard tissue inside.
How is the treatment performed?
Asimism, the treatment varies according to the region where the colloid cyst is present:
In the brain:
The treatment for colloid cyst located in the brain depends on the symptoms and the position in which the cyst is found. When no symptoms are reported, no treatment is established by the neurologist, only periodic follow-up is carried out to verify whether the patient has increased in size. When there are symptoms, the treatment is carried out through surgery, where the cyst is drained and its walls are completely removed. During surgery, it is common for the doctor to send part of the cyst to the laboratory for a biopsy to be performed and to determine whether the cyst is really benign.
On the thyroid:
It is not necessary to carry out any type of treatment if the cyst is benign, it can only be observed if it increases in size with the passage of time. If it is very large, more than 4 cm, or if it is causing symptoms such as pain, snoring or breathing problems, the surgery can be indicated to remove the affected lobe. If there is uncontrolled production of hormones or if it is malignant, in addition to the surgery, treatment can be carried out with radioactive iodine.
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