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Urinary system: what is it, main organs and diseases

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The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra. Its function is basically to filter the blood for the elimination of toxins and metabolic residues through the urine, maintaining homeostasis, which is the balance of the internal media of the organism.

The kidneys filter all the blood from the body in a few minutes, this being a continuous process. The blood enters the kidney through the abdominal aorta artery, which branches and forms the renal arteries; and the inferior vena cava, which also divides and forms the renal venas cavas.

Urinary system organs

The main features of each part of this system are:



  • 2 rhinones: los riñones poseen in the form of a bean, measuring approximately 12 x 6 x 3 cm in the adult and each one weighs around 150 g. These organs are located one on each side of the vertebral column and the right kidney is located a little lower than the position of the liver. They are covered by a fibrous capsule formed of fatty tissue that protects the kidneys from trauma. The kidneys are divided in corteza and médula. The corteza has vascular structures called renal corpuscles, which are where the blood is filtered. So just one day, the kidneys produce 1 to 2 liters of urine by filtering 180 liters of blood;
  • 2 ureters: are the conduits that connect the kidneys with the bladder. The ureters perform peristaltic movements to lead the orina to the bladder.
  • Vejiga: it’s a bag that stores the orina, which poses a muscular cape. When the empty poses the shape of a pear and when the empty poses the shape of a globe. The bladder can store up to 800 ml of urine.
  • Urethra: it is a conduit that leads the urinary bladder from the bladder to the body, allowing for differences between the male and female urethra. In the woman it only serves for the excretion of the orina and in the man, in addition to the excretion of the orina, it also conducts the semen in the ejaculation.

male urinary system

The difference between the male and female urinary system is that in men, the urethra has double function, the step of the urine and the semen. The male urethra is divided into: prostatic (from 3 to 4 cm), membranous (from 1 to 2 cm) and spongy (around 15 cm).

female urinary system

The female urethra is different from the male one, it can lead to tan only the orina hacia afuera del cuerpo. This ends around the external medium and is more prone to infections by microorganisms present inside the vagina and in the anal region; for this reason, urinary infections are more common among women.

Functions of the urinary system

The main function of the urinary system is the filtration of the blood with the purpose of conserving the hydroelectric balance, maintaining the water and electrolytes, such as sodium, chloride, potassium and others, in ideal places. However, this system is also responsible for maintaining the pH of the blood and blood pressure, as it regulates the amount of water present in the blood.

Possible diseases of the urinary system

The most common diseases of the urinary system are:



1. Urinary infection

Occurs when microorganisms from the external medium enter the urethra and enter the bladder, causing symptoms such as pain and burning when urinating. The treatment is carried out using antibiotics prescribed by the doctor, however, when it is not carried out right at the beginning of the symptoms, the microorganisms continue to proliferate and increase, being able to reach the ureters and kidneys.

Find out how to identify and treat a urinary tract infection.

2. Nephritis

Es cuando los microorganisms affect the kidneys, causing symptoms such as weakness, pain in the back, high fever with fever and drops of blood in the urinary tract. The treatment is carried out with antibiotics prescribed by the doctor.

Find out more about the symptoms and treatment of nephritis.

3. Kidney failure

It occurs when the kidneys do not filter the blood properly and complications such as blood acidity and increased blood pressure occur. This situation needs to be reversed as soon as possible, you were a serious illness. In certain cases it is possible to cure it with medication, without embargo, in others, the person may need to perform the blood filtration by means of a hemodialysis device, every day or 2 to 3 times a week. In some cases it can turn into a chronic illness.

Find out how to identify and treat renal failure.

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Consult a Doctor | Translated by User2937

Content for educational purposes only

The translator user relied on the following text:

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Disclaimer – (English version>) This content has been prepared based on information from research, additional publications, or the translation/verification work of a volunteer editor of this web council. This is a non-profit service. It is strongly recommended that all details and information published be carefully verified. We never allow medication recommendations, medication package inserts or any medication guidance. We never allow partisan politics as information.

Isenção de responsabilidade – (versão em português): Este conteúdo foi preparado com base em informações de pesquisas, publicações adicionais ou no trabalho de tradução/verificação de um editor voluntário deste conselho web. Este é um serviço sem fins lucrativos. É altamente recomendável que todos os detalhes e informações publicadas sejam verificadas cuidadosamente. Nunca permitimos recomendações de medicamentos, bulas ou qualquer orientação sobre medicamentos. Nunca permitimos a política partidária como base para checagem. Para mais informações, leia nossos termos.

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